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Mathematical Formulæ is one of LaTeX's great strengths. A formula can appear either inlined in the paragraph, or separately (so-called display maths). You can try to insert the following code in a LaTeX document and compile it to see how it works:

Mathematical formulæ are essential in most scientific texts, for instance $E = mc^2$. It is important that they look good. Longer formulæ require a line of their own, like this: \[ P(x) = \sum_{i=1}^n c_i x^i. \] Greek letters are easily achieved: $\alpha=2$, and $\beta = 2\alpha + 1$. As you know, different symbols for multiplication. You would probably say that an image is $256\times256$, while a product is usually $ab$. If you need symbol for the a product, it may be like this: \[ S = \alpha \cdot \frac{a + 1}{n-1}, \text{ where } a < 2. \]

Note that typesetting rules for maths are different from those for text; for instance, whitespace is ignored. The curly braces work as in C and Java, i.e. they group single tokens into a block which is treated as one token.

Almost any conceivable mathematical symbol can be typeset easily in LaTeX. If you need more than I have shown and what you can guess, you should look up in the book.

To get numbered equation, you can try this:

\usepackage{amsmath} A reference to \eqref{eq:B} may be used before it is declared. \begin{align} \label{eq:A} A & = \alpha + \frac{\beta}{n-1},\\ \label{eq:A} B & = \beta + Bx^2. \end{align} It is now possible to refer to Equation \eqref{eq:A} whenever you need it.

The ampersand (&) is used for alignment, so that the equal signs (=) come directly under eachother.